Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS)

Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS) is a consensus mechanism that allows cryptocurrency holders to lease their coins to nodes on a network.

What Is Leased Proof of Stake? 

Leased Proof of Stake (LPoS) is a consensus mechanism that allows cryptocurrency holders to lease their coins to nodes on a network. These nodes, called validators, are responsible for validating transactions and proposing blocks. By leasing tokens to validators, token holders can passively earn a portion of the transaction fees paid out to validators, without having to actively participate in the block creation and validation process.

How Does Leased Proof of Stake Work?

The leasing process in LPoS blockchain networks follows a few simple steps:

1. Token holders create a lease: First, users who want to lease their coins create a lease transaction specifying the amount of coins being leased and the validator receiving the lease. The coins remain under the full control of the token holder.
2. Leased coins join the validator’s stake: The leased coins are added to the validator’s existing stake. This increases their chances of being selected to propose and validate the next block.
3. Validators earn rewards: When validators are chosen to create a new block, they receive the transaction fees as rewards from that block.  
4. Rewards are shared: Validators share a portion of the rewards with all token holders who have leased coins to them, proportionate to each user’s leased amount.

Benefits of the Leased Proof of Stake

There are a few key advantages to the LPoS model:

Reduced barriers to entry: Token holders with fewer coins can still earn rewards by leasing to larger validators. There is no minimum staking amount.
Passive income: Leasing provides rewards without having to actively validate transactions or maintain validator infrastructure.
Flexibility: Leases can be canceled at any time, providing flexibility in how holders use their coins.
Increased chances: Leasing to larger validators boosts their chances of proposing blocks and earning fees to share.
The user retains control: Leased coins remain under the full control of the token holder.

Core Features of Leased Proof of Stake

LPoS has some defining features that set it apart from other staking models:

Decentralized: Anyone can participate without needing permission. Validators are chosen probabilistically based on stake.
Balance Leasing: Coins are leased, not transferred. Users retain full control.
Unpredictable block generation: The next validator is chosen using a randomization technique to prevent manipulation.
Rewards from fees: Validators earn transaction fees as rewards.
High scalability: LPoS chains can achieve high throughput without compromising decentralization.

How Does LPoS Differ From PoW and Traditional PoS? 

Leased Proof of Stake differs from other popular consensus models like Proof of Work (PoW) and traditional Proof of Stake (PoS) in a few key ways. Compared to the energy-intensive mining required for PoW, LPoS is more energy efficient and has faster transaction validation times since it uses a staking mechanism rather than mining. The barrier to participation is also lower than in PoW.

LPoS also provides some benefits compared to traditional PoS. It allows even smaller token holders to earn staking rewards by leasing to validators, instead of having to operate validator nodes themselves. While delegated staking in traditional PoS leads to some centralization of power with a select set of validators, LPoS is arguably more decentralized since any token holder can lease their coins out.

However, LPoS is generally less decentralized overall compared to PoW, since there are still fewer nodes validating the blockchain. 

What Role Does LPoS Play in Blockchain Validation?

LPoS uses stake weight to select validators to propose and validate new blocks. The steps are:

1. Validators are selected based on the size of their total stake including leased coins.

2. The larger the stake, the greater chance a validator has of being chosen to create the next block.

3. Chosen validators validate transactions and propose new blocks.

4. Valid blocks are added to the chain and earn rewards.

So LPoS leverages staked coins to assign block validation rights. More coins staked means better chances of validation.

What Are Some Alternatives to Leased Proof of Stake?

Some other consensus mechanisms similar to LPoS include:

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) – Token holders vote for validator nodes instead of directly leasing coins to them.
Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS) – Validators form pools where users can deposit tokens to participate in staking rewards. 
Proof of Stake (PoS) – Standard staking model where token holders validate proportionate to their stake. 
Proof of Authority (PoA) – Validators are approved whitelisted nodes instead of being chosen algorithmically by stake.

Each offers its own tradeoffs between decentralization, scalability and ease of participation.

What Benefits Does the Lessor Receive From Leasing?

Leasing enables token holders to earn a portion of the transaction fees validators receive, without having to operate a validator node themselves. They can also increase their reward potential by leasing to higher-performing validators who are more likely to be selected to propose blocks. 

Another benefit is the ability to withdraw their leased coins back into their personal wallet at any time by canceling the lease. The process allows participation in the consensus process with smaller stake amounts, as users can lease their coins to larger validators for better odds. 

What Are the Incentives for Node Operators To Accept Leases? 

The additional staked coins that come from leases increase the chances that the validator node will be selected to validate transactions and propose new blocks. The higher likelihood of being chosen results in more frequent opportunities for the validator node to earn transaction fees. 

The validator can then share portions of the earned fees and rewards with the users leasing stakes to them, which incentivizes further leasing by token holders. 

Unlike Proof of Work systems, LPoS validating does not require expensive specialized mining equipment, only an always-online node. Therefore, accepting leases strengthens a validator node’s position in the network and lets them share profits, without having to take on the risks associated with holding a large stake themselves. 

What Are the Potential Downsides or Limitations of the LPoS Model?

However, there are also some potential downsides of leased proof of stake to consider:

Increased centralization risks: Validators with more stake tend to dominate, and leasing exacerbates this.
Security concerns: Hackers stealing leased tokens from online validator nodes.
Complex code: Somewhat intricate to implement leasing logic and reward sharing.
Lower participation: In practice, many token holders simply hold rather than lease out their coins.
Regulatory uncertainty: Staking and earnings may have tax implications depending on jurisdiction.

So while LPoS offers some benefits, it also requires tradeoffs around decentralization and programming complexity. Proper implementation can help mitigate some of the disadvantages.